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black phosphorus, also known as phosphorene, is a p-type semiconducting 2D material that has a unique in-plane layered structure. It has a thickness-dependent electronic band gap and substantial anisotropy in transport behavior, which make it suited for a variety of applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
The most important characteristic of phosphorene is its in-plane layered structure, which arises from the sp3 hybridisation of phosphorous, which forms three bonds with adjacent atoms, leaving a lone pair of electrons on each molecule. This sp3 bonding results in layers that exhibit a puckered honeycomb structure. Moreover, phosphorene exhibits strong structural and functional anisotropy (strong in-plane electrical conductance and mobility, high electron transfer capacity) which makes it an ideal candidate for diverse biomedical applications 25-30.
Chemical sensing – BP has superior sensitivity to detect gases that are hazardous to health, such as CO and NO2, which have been demonstrated with sensitivities of 20 parts per billion in air . This sensor could be used to monitor air quality and to detect the presence of environmental gas leaks or leaks from pipelines.
Biological application – BP has been shown to be biodegradable in the body, producing nontoxic intermediates. It has also been investigated for regenerative medicine where BP can be integrated into cellular structures to enhance their functionality.
Drug delivery – BP is stable in water without degradation and can be readily biodegraded inside the body, making it safe for a wide range of applications including cancer therapy.