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Bismuth oxide has been used as a catalyst for catalysis and in the production of rubber, glass, and ceramic. It is also used to make ceramic and porcelain enamels, and to fireproof paper.
bismuth is a naturally occurring element found in various ores such as bismuthinite, bismuth oxide, and bismuth sulfide. The chemical composition of bismuth is BMI=9.7 g/cm3. Compared to lead compounds, it is less toxic to human health. However, it is easily oxidized in air.
It is not amphiprotic in solution, but it can be converted into d-Bi2O3 by electrodeposition. d-Bi2O3 has the highest reported conductivity. It is three orders of magnitude higher than the monoclinic phase and four orders of magnitude higher than the intermediate phases.
In the solid state, d-Bi2O3 has an ionic conductivity of roughly one Scm-1 at 750degC. This conductivity is relatively stable at room temperature. To obtain d-Bi2O3, an electrolyte consisting of sodium or potassium hydroxide is required.
In the solid state, bismuth oxide has the ability to form a tetragonal b-phase with a CB and VB position. This is a rare semiconductor homojunction.
Bismuth oxide has also been investigated as a material for SOFCs. Although it is not a suitable material for use in an electrolyte, it has a high SCP, and its low melting point and refractory nature make it an ideal candidate for the development of an oxygen-based fuel cell.
It has been successfully synthesized by a solid-state technique, and its properties have been evaluated in a series of experiments. It has also been shown to have antimicrobial activities. For example, it has been shown to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.