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mp of ferrocene
Compared to other metallocenes such as ruthenocene (light-yellow) and osmocene (white), ferrocene has a staggered conformation, resulting in its molecular formula Fe(e5-C5H5)2. In this molecule, iron is sandwiched between two cyclopentadienyl rings with the overlap of d orbitals on the iron atoms with pi electrons in the cyclopentadienyl ring.
It is a stable orange crystalline solid, melting at 173 degC, and it is soluble in organic solvents. It can undergo a variety of substitution reactions on the rings. It is also oxidized to the blue cation (C5H5)2Fe+.
Ferrocene is a versatile chemical compound with a broad range of uses in industry and research, including as an antiknock additive for gasoline, a catalyst for vulcanization and acceleration, as a precursor to polymers, as a source of high temperature lubricants, as an intermediate for high-temperature polymers, as a coating for satellites and missiles, and as an iron nanoparticle source for the production of carbon nanotubes.
The chemical properties of ferrocene are similar to those of aromatic compounds, making it a suitable starting material for the preparation of a variety of derivatives. It is prone to many reactions characteristic of aromatics, such as electrophilic substitution, alkylation and sulfonation.
Ferrocene is produced by the reaction of cyclopentadiene with reduced iron (Fe(II))oxide in the presence of metal oxides. The resulting products can be prepared by a two-stage transmetalation process. The reaction is performed in ethereal solvents such as toluene and hexane. The ferrocene precursor is then subjected to a ligand exchange and acetylation step using acetic anhydride and phosphoric acid as the catalysts.