Nano diamond has been widely studied in biological, electronic and quantum engineering fields

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Overview of Nano diamond
The nano-diamonds, also known as diamond nanoparticles, are diamonds smaller than 1 micron in size and can be created by an explosive or meteorite strike. Due to its low cost, ease of large-scale synthetic, surface functionalization, high biocompatibility and easy synthesis, nano diamond has been extensively studied in the electronic, biological and quantum engineering areas.

Structure of nanodiamond

It is important to consider three main aspects of the structure and function of diamond nanoparticles. The shape of diamond nuclei was determined using a number of diffraction experiments. The diamond cage is the core of diamond nanoparticles. It is mostly made of carbon. Although the structure is very similar, the diamond nanoparticles’ surface is almost identical to graphite. A recent study revealed that the surface is mostly made of carbon. However, it also contains a lot of phenol and pyrrole as well as sulfonic, carboxylic, and hydroxyl groups. There are sometimes defects in the structure and arrangement of diamond nanoparticles, such as nitrogen-vacancy center. Recent studies have shown that the size of diamond nuclei decreases the frequency of nitrogen-vacancy center.

Production methods for nano-diamond

Other than the explosion, other synthesis methods include hydrothermal, ion bombing, laser bombardment (microwave plasma chemical vapor deposit), ultrasonic and electrochemical. High-purity nanoparticles can also be produced by high pressure decomposition of graphite, C3N4, at high temperature. For commercial production of Nano Diamonds, the industry standard is detonation-synthesis. The most popular explosive is a mixture trinitrotoluene with hexose (or monosaccharide).

Detonation is usually performed in a sealed chamber of stainless steel that is oxygen-free. It produces a mix of Nano diamonds as well as other graphite compound averaging 5 nanometers. Nano diamonds can only be created by detonation synthesis if there is no oxygen. This happens at pressures higher than 15 GPa, and temperatures greater then 3000K. To prevent the formation nanoparticles of diamond, the oxidation system must be rapidly cooled to increase the production of Nano-diamonds. This is because diamond remains the most stable under such conditions. Detonation synthesizers use liquid and gas coolants like water, water-based mousse and ice. Detonation results in synthesis, which is a mixture nano diamond particles and graphite carbon forms. Therefore, thorough cleaning must be done to remove all impurities. To remove SP2 and other metal impurities, either gaseous or solution phase Nitric Acid Oxidation are the most common methods.

Application prospect of Nano diamond

Nano diamond’s strength, hardness, thermal conductivity and biocompatibility are unique, making it a popular choice for precision polishing, lubrication and high-performance metal matrix composites.

Nano diamond is a material of rich characteristics and connotations. This is an area that presents great opportunities and challenges. Nano diamond is a product of years of research and production. This material can be used to produce raw materials for the defense industry, precision polishing industry, biomedicine, electronic, chemical, and other national economies. I believe there will be a wide application of Nano diamond in many industries in the near future.

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