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Professional shoemakers tell you: the factors that affect the comfort of shoes

Writer: Beite Shoes   PDF Format

Shoes are indispensable daily necessities for people. With the development of human society, it has also evolved from a single protective function to a consumer product in a specific environment. As a designer, it is the responsibility of people to enjoy the functional convenience that shoes and boots bring to people in different situations. This requires scientifically and reasonably entering the factors that affect the comfort of footwear products. There are five main categories: last design 、 Sample design, bottom part design, material selection, and process design.
Effect of sandal design on shoe comfort
The design of the last is based on the data of each part of the foot. From the perspective of footwear design, it belongs to the first. The quality of the last design directly affects the beauty and comfort of the finished shoe.
1. There are four arches of the foot, namely the front and back transverse arches, the inner and outer longitudinal arches. During the movement of the foot, the four bows act as springs to slow down the ground recoil. If the forefoot convexity is too large when designing the last type, long-term wearing of this last-made shoe will cause damage to the anterior transverse ligament and loss of elasticity, causing it to sag, which in turn will cause the posterior transverse arch and internal longitudinal arch to collapse To form flat feet. Flat feet are prone to fatigue and pain during prolonged exercise and standing. When designing the convexity of the forefoot, it is necessary to create the front and rear stilts based on human feet. The forefoot is based on the natural inclination of the feet. The height of the adult's forefoot is generally controlled at 15-18. Too high will cause the forefoot convexity to be too large. The higher the backsaw, the smaller the convexity of the forefoot, and the lower the front saw, to ensure the ground area of ​​the forefoot, so that the wearer will not cause afoot.
 2. The metatarsophalangeal joint is to bear human weight and labor
One of the main parts of the load is also a crucial part of bending when walking. Whether the size of the last and the plantar circumference and the physical arrangement is reasonable will affect the wearing comfort and the service life of the shoes. The significant plantar boundary and the movement of the foot in the shoe are also disadvantageous. The height of the last backsaw is generally suitable at 20-40 old n.
Upper design
The upper design is based on the law of foot shape, lower limb physiological structure and exercise function, materials, and technology. It transforms the design into a physical link. Through the upper drawing, the model can be smoothly transitioned to the product processing stage so that the product can meet the design. Product.
 1. When designing a full-top shoe, the length of the front face of the shoe, the control point of the door position, should be controlled on the outermost surface, because 锕when the human body squats or the foot bends, the bending point on the boat of the foot becomes thicker. The length of the front face generally does not exceed the position of the entrance door, to facilitate the movement of the feet and prevent the tongue or ears and other help parts from rubbing or kicking.
2. For shoes with a short front face, a heel design should be added to the mid-waist rear section, such as a strap or a small bag heel, and a foot support band design, etc., so that the wearer can walk effortlessly. Commonly seen in the design of women's sandals, the narrow front band or short front help can't lift the foot when walking, dragging the heel; it is tough, at this time, should increase the heel design.
3. Rear mid-seam height In addition to high waists and boots, generally low-top shoes must control the rear mid-seam height. Especially leather shoes, leather shoes have a heel, too high back will cause rubbing feet, stuck feet. Too low, its shoes do not heel. The height is controlled above the upper edge of the heel bone, the range can not be too broad, and the reasonable size is set according to the experience and process.
4. The height of the back, medial and lateral ankles In the design of general low-top shoes, the height of the rear upper should be controlled when drawing the curve of the rear upper. The theoretical basis is the height of the inner and outer ankle bones of the foot. The height of the lower edge of the center of the ankle is obtained according to the law of the foot shape. It can only be more economical than this value and not high. Otherwise, the ankle bone will get stuck and damage the skin of the foot. And note that the height of the inner and outer ankle bones are different, the inner ankle bone is higher than the outer ankle bone, the design can consider that the emotional and upper arms are 2-3mm more senior than the outer and upper arms.
5. The door position control is set at the bending part of the instep movement. Because of the deep and narrow door design, it is easy to tear and inconvenience.
6. Little toe control point When the break-off position or the sandal upper strap is designed at the end of the little toe, if it is not controlled correctly, it will cause problems such as tipping and exposure of the little toe. It is common for some women's little toes to drill out of the slit of the sandals. When walking, the little toe is vulnerable to outside harm and uncomfortable.
7. Heel control points generally control the position of the uprights on both sides of the back of the sandals to improve the carrying capacity of the upper on the heel.
The influence of sole component design on comfort
The design of individual components includes the design of sole, heel, main heel, inner toe cap, insole, and so on.
1. The design of the sole should not be too bulky. For shoes worn in winter, the design of a slightly thicker bottom type is helpful to isolate the cold air on the ground and maintain the average temperature of the feet. If it is too thick, the feet will feel poor on the ground, and the center of gravity may easily deviate, and the foot may appear. The design of the bottom pattern affects the slip resistance of the shoe. The base pattern should be designed to resist horizontal and vertical slippage. The anti-skid effect is good, the friction between the sole and the ground is increased when walking, and people can walk easily with the reaction force of the field. On the contrary, it is difficult for people to walk, and it is easy to hurt their feet and bodies. The unique structural design allows the air in the shoes to be adequately replaced during sports and improves comfort.
 2. The flexible design of the heel can make the weight of the human body more reasonably distributed on the supporting points of various parts of the foot, enhance the stability of the human body, and improve the elasticity of the arch. The height, size, and shape of the heel affect the comfort of the shoe. The height of the heel depends on the height of the last sway, pay attention to the coordination between the two when designing or selecting. The lower edge of the calcaneus is the main force point of the person's center of gravity. It is at the center of the heel of the bottom of the person's foot. Force. The size of the heel seat surface affects the fastness of the wheel assembly.
3. The design of the inner toe cap should not exceed the bending part of the foot in length. Otherwise, the bending of the foot is restricted, and there is a hidden danger of jamming and grinding the foot.
4. Due to the physiological functions of the feet, the distribution of sweat glands in the human feet is uneven. The center of the foot and metatarsophalangeal joints have the highest density, and the heels and insteps are less, so pay attention to the design of the insole, insole, and lining of the forefoot area for breathability and sweat absorption. Insole design adds flexibility and breathability. For the insole of sports shoes, the design of the midsole is increased, and the elastic material is adopted to reduce the impact force between the foot and the ground.
Influence of material selection on comfort
The selection of shoe materials is not only about appearance but also to a great extent, considering the hygienic performance of shoes. Whether the shoe is comfortable or not depends on the microclimate in the boot. The natural grain leather and cotton textiles in the upper material have excellent hygienic properties. Due to the excellent ventilation, moisture permeability, and moisture absorption of the content, there are also the prerequisites for not stuffy feet or covering feet. At this stage, all kinds of synthetic leather and artificial leather developed in China are far inferior to natural leather in terms of hygienic performance, so when designing, choose appropriate materials according to style, wearing conditions, and environment to improve the wearing comfort of shoes. Although the modified leather and the two-layer leather belong to the leather shoe material, the surface is covered with decorative objects, the pores of the natural leather are blocked, so the performance of breathability and water vapor is significantly reduced. The upper textile materials should pay attention to the selection of materials with excellent hygienic performance and comfort, such as breathability, moisture absorption, lightness, softness, sterilization, and deodorization. The first element of the shoe upper must be used in conjunction with the lining, insole, inner toe cap, adhesive, and other materials in order to exert its superior performance. Rico, the shoe material, has been in contact with the foot recently and accepts the foot to bring steam and sweat. If Rico itself does not have the function of breathing and moisture absorption, the hygienic performance of the fabric will not play out. Good quality insole materials for shoes should be hygroscopic, breathable, have excellent dimensional stability, flexural resistance, etc., in order to meet the requirements of use, it will also give the feet a comfortable bottom environment.
The performance of the sole material significantly affects the comfort when wearing. It is selected according to the occasion of wearing shoes and the purpose of use. For general shoes, the soles designed and used should be light in weight and moderate in hardness. The hardness is too low, there is no rigidity, and the foot is easy to be strained; too high, the foot is not allowed to bend with the foot when walking, both cases are easy to cause foot fatigue.
The influence of production technology on the comfort of finished shoes
The impact of the production process on the polished shoes, that is, the impact on the polished shoes due to improper or inadequate process operation. Inappropriate or insufficient process operation will affect the appearance, wearing life, and wearing the comfort of shoes. The following aspects will affect the enjoyment of finished shoes:
 1. Due to the excessive thickness of the connecting parts of the parts, the edges in the process operation are not done well, which causes the edges to be polished; the main heel and the inner side of the internal head are not flat and have a hard border, resulting in a polished foot.
2. In the upper process, the lining and lining are not flattened to form wrinkles, which will seriously affect the comfort.
3. The top and lining of the shoe are not well adhered to. After the layering occurs, the foot movement space is reduced, and the back of the foot has a feeling of pressure, especially the thick Rico.
4. The insole treatment must have inevitable friction with the sole of the foot so that the foot does not slip in the shoe cavity.
5. The shank is the spine of the shoe, which plays a role in maintaining the arc of the bottom and stabilizing the heel. Especially crucial for high heels. The hook should be installed on the heel line. If the angle is not correct, the foot will be unstable when wearing shoes.
6. After controlling the back seam height. Because of this size control, it is the final pass to ensure that the back is not jammed, and the feet are ground on the basis of a reasonable last and help design.
7. The position when assembling the heel is critical, especially for women's shoes with a small heel shape. It must be installed in the place where the heel is stressed, and it must be installed and installed to prevent the shaking and misalignment of the heel from causing damage to the feet and the human body. The comfort of shoes is also related to how they are worn. Factors such as whether to use insoles, whether to dry regularly, change shoes, and the hygienic performance of threadbare socks.

In short, high-quality shoes not only have an extraordinary design but also improve the factors that affect the comfort of shoes and boots, so that shoes and boots can meet the physiological and psychological needs of consumers.
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