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Vanadium sulfide is a material with wide application potential in energy storage and conversion devices. It has a variety of different chemical compositions, morphologies, crystal phases and electrochemical activities that are suitable for the development of energy efficient mutual transformation between chemical and electrical energies.
It has good corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance above 660°C (
The element is found in a number of minerals, including carnotite, roscoelite, vanadinite and patronite. It is also present in phosphate rock and iron ores. It is a relatively rare element and is not readily found in nature.
One source of vanadium is the mineral titaniferous magnetite, which is reduced with coal in a rotary kiln to produce vanadium pentoxide. This is a yellow to red crystalline powder that has several uses in the chemical industry.
Another source of the element is in the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to nitric acid, producing blue-colored vanadium monoxide, V2O5. This is an example of the ability of transition metals to change their oxidation states, which are known as their oxidation numbers.
The oxidation state of vanadium has an effect on how it reacts with oxygen. The more negative the oxidation state, the more negatively oxygen will react with it! The same is true for hydrogen. When air is added to the reaction, it will rapidly oxidize any vanadium ions that are present.