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Magnesium is a metallic element that is one of the alkaline earth metals in group 2 of the periodic table. It is a shiny, gray metal that has low density and high chemical reactivity. It is a weakly oxidizing metal and can be used to make cast magnesium alloys, such as aircraft engine components and wheels for sports cars.
It is a common reagent in organic chemistry and is found as Grignard reagents such as phenylmagnesium bromide and ethylmagnesium bromide. When magnesium reacts with haloalkanes, it can form organomagnesium compounds.
When it is reacted with oxygen and nitrogen, magnesium produces magnesium oxide (MgO), and when it reacts with hydrogen, it forms magnesium nitride, Mg3N2. Both these nitride and oxide are soluble in water and can be formed by adding a solution of a dilute acid to a solution of a weakly alkaline substance such as HCl or by using an azo violet dye.
In a laboratory setting, a common experiment is to add a small amount of magnesium oxide to a crucible and heat it to a high enough temperature for it to react. The resulting product may look black or white and should not be looked at directly as it could cause eye damage.
A recent study has shown that magnesium ring repair of a transected ACL in a goat model results in restored in-situ forces within +-8 N of those obtained with anterior tibial load alone. This result is significant because it can help to determine whether or not the treatment can be successful in clinical practice at multiple healing time points and at a range of loading conditions.